Combined vascular and biliary fluorescence imaging in laparoscopic cholecystectomy shorter operation duration, when proven that CVS can actually be obtained significantly earlier compared to conventional laparoscopic imaging. Fluorescence laparoscopy could also be implemented as a final check of the liver hilum before closing the pneumoperitoneum, in order to rule out or detect bile duct or vasculobiliary injury. This could be checked through the presence or absence of fluorescence contrast leakage into the abdomen. 61 Conclusion Both biliary and vascular fluorescence imaging in laparoscopic cholecystectomy are easily applicable, can be helpful for earlier identification of the extra‐hepatic bile ducts, and are useful for the confirmation of the arterial anatomy.
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