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70 32 Statutes of the barber-surgeons. ‘Iof Barber-Surgeons were read and approved and ratified, fraternity.”.poor for free for the will of God, and that from this day onwardsI will conduct myself as is fitting for a member of then the esteemed town council on the same day thearticles of the Statutes and Regulations of the Fraternity as a token of the establishment of the fraternity. Whomsoever Two other regulations should be mentioned here. In a this concerns should abide by said articles.” Thus reads the garrison town, like Maastricht, the competences of military and translation of the seventeenth century Dutch of the ordinance civilian barber-surgeons had to be demarcated. Military barber- of the council regarding the institution of the fraternity of surgeons were only allowed to treat civilians when they had barber-surgeons in Maastricht on 4 September, 1651. As all agreed to the Statutes. The second regulation concerned service professions, during the preceding period, from around performance of sections. “After permission is obtained from 1400, the barber-surgeons had been members of the guild of both high bailiffs, the Fraternity is permitted to dissect some the kremers (merchants). The statutes of the new fraternity did dead bodies to be specified further for the instruction of the not differ perceptibly from those of other towns in these parts Fraternity and to investigate the cause of the disease of the of Europe. They regulated approximately the same everywhere, deceased. But only on condition that all the physicians and primarily of course the area in which they were active. In barber-surgeons of the town are invited and at least some of Maastricht this concerned the town and the so-called ‘urban them are present, and furthermore that permission for the territory’, the areas surrounding the town (except at Sint dissection of the bodies is requested from the High Bailiff Pieter) which extended approximately one and a half kilometers under whose jurisdiction the persons in question fell when from the city wall, the ban mile. The statutes also regulated the alive.” organisation, succession through the master-apprentice system, In the Southern Netherlands and the Rijnland, both assistance from servants, punishment for violation of the predominantly roman catholic regions, obduction or section was regulations and education, continuing education and to remain a taboo for a long time to come. The statutes of the examinations. At the oral examination, the candidate barber- fraternity of barber-surgeons of Ghent from 1663, for example, surgeon had to answer questions on topics including dissection, make no mention of it, and an ordinance of 1665 by king lumps, sores, fractures, sprains and medicines and instruments. Philips IV, lord of the (Southern) Netherlands, contains no The practical part included bleeding, both of the medial artery regulations regarding this issue. Obviously, Maastricht had a of the arm and the vena salvatella of the hand and the large special position in this respect. This was due to the conquest, superficial artery of the leg, near the foot. When the candidate in 1632, of the town by the States General of the United passed the exam, the masters initiated him as a member of the Netherlands, as a result of which protestant religion was given fraternity. The oath that the new member had to swear on such the same rights as the roman catholic faith. Roman catholics an occasion read: “I promise and swear that I will abide by the had to honour the decree ‘Ecclesia abhorret a sanguine’ issued Statutes of the Fraternity, that I will loyally and to the best of by pope Innocentius II (1215). This decree may have partly my abilities serve and help the rich against payment and the been issued in reaction to a call from the progressive Bernard of


Geneeskundeboek-Opmaak Binnenwerk-ENG.indd
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