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32 bishop, Aravaas, was thought to have been buried. Monulfus established his episcopal see within the Roman fortress, in the Petrus church, the predecessor of the present Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekerk. During the Merovingian period, Maastricht was clearly a place of importance. The national assembly, convened by king Childebert II in 596, and the successive masters of the mint employed by the town are evidence of the town’s political and be the ‘new Rome’. This idea was promoted by Alcuin and economic significance. As an episcopal see Maastricht gradually Einhard, religious men who were active in Aachen and developed into a destination for pilgrims. Around 750, during Maastricht in that period. Alongside Aachen, or the ‘new the incumbency of Theodard, the temple with the grave of Rome’, Maastricht came to be known as the ‘new Jerusalem’. Aravaas was replaced by a basilica consecrated to the same Aachen and Maastricht thus formed the political and spiritual bishop, whose name came to be written as Servaas. In the heart of the Frankish empire. following centuries, this crypt church was to become the The last bishop of Maastricht was Walcand. He came destination of increasing numbers of pilgrims. from the court in Aachen and was the executor of In the eighth century, the Merovingian dynasty was Charlemagne’s will. In 830, Maastricht was still mentioned as succeeded by that of the Carolingians. When Charlemagne, the an episcopal see, but during the following decades it lost its most famous Carolingian, set up his court in the newly built position as episcopal town to Luik, which was first mentioned palace in Aachen in 794, the political heart of the vast as an episcopal see in 881. Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia, Carolingian empire fell within the boundaries of the bishopric a descendant of Charlemagne, laid the foundations of the of Maastricht. Under Carolingian rule, Maastricht remained an present Servaas church between 973 and 991. The new church important centre of trade. To the north of the fortress and on was consecrated in 1029, and some years later the remains of the eastern bank of the Meuse a trade settlement developed duke Charles were buried next to Servaas. with a population of around 1500. There was also a lively trade around the grave of Sint Servaas. Pilgrims visiting the Servaas What was the position of health care during this period? church ran to such vast numbers that the monastery built a Although the Romans had some useful medical knowledge, the hospice to accommodate them. Care for sick pilgrims lay at the powers of medicine were very limited. After the conversion to foundation of the history of intramural health care in the town. Christianity, the healing powers that had once been attributed Incited by the urge to legitimise their empire in the eyes of the to the gods of classical antiquity were transferred to the roman East Roman emperors, Charlemagne’s court developed a catholic saints, whose healing powers could be invoked. profound interest in classical culture. Aachen was proclaimed to Pilgrimages were to become an important way to seek cures for


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