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Introduction to episode 7 Hospitals and . 70 faith in medicine AScepticism about the powerlessness of medicine for the treatment of sick people, which had been spreadingexclusively a hospital. This hospital offered tangible evidencethat the transformation of institution for the poor to institutionfter the Second World War, medicine went througha period of explosive growth and progress. 180 turned into almost unlimited confidence in new medical throughout Europe, had also reached Maastricht. possibilities, particularly after 1950. During the early history What was the history of this medical ‘enchantment’? of medicine, gods and stars had governed the fate of sick With increasing urbanisation and after the French revolution in people. The period after the Second World War during which particular, health care at home by families shifted to public tremendous advances were seen in medicine, raised health care in hospitals. Names of hospitals, like 'Hôtel Dieu' expectations and fostered belief that all afflictions could be and 'Charité', reflected the centrality of the care for the elderly resolved by scalpel, pills and molecular biology, especially in and the poor. Sick people generally only went to a hospital to the community, the media and among doctors. Dunning, the die there. Faith in the skills of medicine was limited. In 1851, author-cardiologist, ironically termed this 'the enchantment the first large hospital was built on the Coolsingel in Rotterdam. of the world'. Between the First and the Second World Wars, the number of In the Netherlands, faith in medical progress was most hospitals increased. The therapeutic successes of medicines and of all noticeable in the building of large hospitals. After the surgical procedures were very modest in those days. The main postwar reconstruction every town coveted its own 'temple of method of treatment was prolonged bed rest and nursing. medicine'. In 1950, Sint Annadal hospital in Maastricht opened This was about to change dramatically, however. its doors. Calvariënberg, its predecessor, was formally an As a result of advances in new knowledge about 'institution', offering a combination of a hospital, home for the chemistry, physics and physiology, effective and sometimes disabled and institution for the insane. Sint Annadal was spectacular treatments of common diseases became available. It started with the use of penicillin in 1941. The internist Willem Kolff developed an artificial kidney in Kampen. Milestone developments in medicine Cortisone and streptomycin became available around 1950. 1853 Chloroform narcosis Simpson 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Koch In 1952, after a poliomyelitis epidemic in Kopenhagen, the first 1896 X-ray Röntgen intensive care department was established. The introduction of 1910 Salversan Ehrlich 1928 Penicillin Fleming chloropromazine in 1954 caused a revolution in the treatment 1944 Artificial kidney Kolff of psychiatric disorders. In 1955, open heart surgery became 1952 Intensive care Kopenhagen 1953 DNA Wilkins, Watson, Crick feasible with the introduction of the heart lung machine. 1955 Cardiac surgery Mass.Gen.Hospital In 1957, diagnostic possibilities had greatly expanded as a result 1963 Renal transplantation Medawar, Murray 1973 CT-scan Hounsfield of the use of ultrasonography. It became possible to look into 1979 Coronary angioplasty Grünzig the body, first into the stomach and later also into the small 1984 Helicobacter pylori Marshall 1996 Aids triple therapy HAART intestine and the colon. In 1961, successful hip replacement 2000 Human genome HUGO-project


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