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Clinical schools in the 52 nineteenth century. Alegal foundation. French law had offered an completed those were they allowed to take the examination ofclinical school, students of pharmacy had to attend subjects thatwere relevant to their profession, and only when they hadfter the French had abolished the guilds, theeducation of surgeons and obstetricians had lost its 126 alternative and also in the Northern Netherlands new the Provincial Committee. regulations of medical oversight and training had been Only towns that had ‘suitable hospitals’ were allowed introduced in the days of the Bataafse Republiek (1798-1806). to establish a clinical school. The programme was taught by But in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands of King William doctors, surgeons and obstetricians and pharmacists who I, no similar regulations were present and therefore, practised in the hospital. In the following years clinical schools immediately after the French had left in 1814, a Royal Decree were opened in Alkmaar (1824), Haarlem (1825), Middelburg was issued ‘containing provisions regarding Medical Regulation (1826), Hoorn (1827), Amsterdam (1828) and Rotterdam in the United Netherlands’. In 1818, further details were (1828). The Calvariënberg hospital that opened in Maastricht in added and included in legal regulations. The provincial 1822 definitely qualified as a hospital, and in fact it has been committees for Medical Regulation were given the task of considered to establish a clinical school at Maastricht. The reviewing diplomas, conducting examinations and keeping plans never came to fruition, however. registers of qualifications. University graduates who had the The Provincial Government did no more than inform degree of medicinae doctor were qualified to practise in the the town councils of the Royal Decree adding that ‘a disastrous discipline in which they had received their doctorate. Other lack of midwives was noticeable in the province, especially in practitioners, such as surgeons and obstetricians, midwives and rural areas.’ In other words, education for midwives was pharmacists, without a university education, had to pass an considered desirable but there was no interest in education for examination by the Provincial Committee before they were surgeons. The Maastricht town council spent little time allowed to practise. Education, however, continued in the old discussing the Royal Decree, which was sent to the College of ways. This changed, however, on 6 January, 1823, when a Royal Governors of the Poor, which administered the Calvariënberg Decree came into effect containing approval of regulations hospital. The minutes of a meeting of the College on 7 March ‘about the establishment of schools for training surgeons and 1823 say that according to the College ‘such provisions are midwives’, the so-called clinical schools. Among other things, already present in the town in the civilian hospital’ and it was the regulations determined the curriculum: anatomy, therefore decided ‘to deposit this document in the archives of physiology, herbal knowledge, chemistry, preparing medicines, this institution’. In short, note was taken of the Royal Decree. natural history, ‘materies medica’, pathology, therapy, surgery On 14 June, 1824, the Royal Decree was again discussed in the and obstetrics. It was also stipulated that only those who had meeting of the College at the request of the hospital physician completed the educational programme of the clinical school but again no decisions were made. The minutes give no were allowed to take the examinations. Similar regulations indication of who this was, but it is clear that Dr J.F.J. Bosch, applied for the education programme for pharmacists. In the the first surgeon and obstetrician of the new hospital, was very


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