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Left above: Letter of the Administrative Committeee of civilian hospitals in Maastricht (24 June 1805). | RHCL Left below: Registration document of officier de santé (11 October 1803). | RHCL Right: J.P. Minckelers. Portrait by Alex Simais, ca. 1910 | RHCL GAM 1367 119 Admission to university and education was democratised. Favouritism and birth no longer played a role. Candidates were selected by admission tests, in order to ensure that the best were admitted and every talented candidate had access to a university education. At the same time, admission to professional practice was regulated. In 1802, laws were promulgated in all departments of the French republic which were of tremendous significance to medicine and thus to medicine in Maastricht, the capital of the department of the Nedermaas. The laws were mainly aimed at bringing order and uniformity to the field of public health. Everything was regulated in the minutest detail. No member of the professions of doctor, surgeon or country doctor (officer de santé) was allowed to practise unless they had gone through the process of examinations, registration and admittance according to the law. The medicinae doctores, doctors Dr J.H. Bosch (1766 -1848) and L. Mancel (born in graduated from an École de Santé, were allowed to practise 1757). Four local pharmacists were added to the Jury Médical medicine everywhere in the republic, but they must have their for the purpose of pharmacy examinations. These positions diploma endorsed in the department where they practised. were filled by W. Nijst (born in 1754), J.P. Minckelers Country doctors, who had gone through a period of in-service (1748 -1824), Haenenberger and M.Th. Henckelius (born in training as an apprentice to a doctor for six years, had to pass 1746). At first there was little enthusiasm for the examinations. an examination by a Jury Médical in the departmental capital. People were clearly concerned that they might lose their The jury was comprised of two doctors working in the licence and with it their livelihoods. The situation was similar department and was chaired by a professor of one of the Écoles in all departments. In fact, on 21 December, 1807, the minister de Santé. After passing the exam, these country doctors were sent a letter to the prefects of every department requesting only allowed to practise in the rural areas of the department them to encourage people to act in accordance with the law. where they had taken the exam. Six months after publication of Nevertheless, people remained extremely wary to take the the law, everyone who practised medicine or surgery without examination. being registered would be fined. A similar law was enacted for The Northern Netherlands, which had been a vassal pharmacists. Professor Tourdes (1770 -1884) from Strasbourg state of France since 1795 and were annexed by Napoleon in was appointed chairman of the Jury Médical of the department 1810, went through similar developments. Here too the guilds of the Nedermaas, and the jury members were the Maastricht and collegia medica were dissolved and ‘Departmental and


Geneeskundeboek-Opmaak Binnenwerk-ENG.indd
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